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About Descipher, LLC
Our Name

The name Descipher (de-SCI-pher) was chosen because we wanted to simplify science for the everyone. Since the other aspects of STEM are so interrelated, we have broadened the scope but have not found a better name.

Our Mission

We are researching translational solutions for the application of STEM knowledge to problems in everyday life. This means we are not, in general, generating new knowledge, but are looking for ways to make STEM knowledge understandable by everyone and are creating software applications to achieve this goal. Because our skills are focused on research and development with limited resources, we are seeking R&D partnerships, investors, acquirers, licensees, OEM relationships, joint ventures, etc. to commercialize our intellectual property (IP) with the goal of making the broadest impact on the application of STEM knowledge around the world. Our goal is not financial. We are happy to let others capitalize on the business opportunities. If it makes sense, we would consider making some or all of the IP into an open-source software project.

If you would like to explore business opportunities, please send email via "Contact Us" with "Business Development Inquiry" in the Subject field.

We would be interested in clinical research collaborations such as clinical data studies to validate the CDSS and clinical trials using it as a tool for identifying pathological or pharmacological patterns. If you would like to explore clinical research or practice applications, please send email via "Contact Us" with "Clinical Use or Research Inquiry" in the Subject field.

Also if you have constructive comments, are interested in learning more about Descipher's products and services, or have suggestions for products and services, please contact us.

Our Team
Managing Partner

Craig Trost is an MD clinical pathologist and PhD biostatistician with additional training in medical artificial intelligence, epidemiology, and nutrition along with an MS in Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health. Prior to starting Descipher, he worked for two medical software startups and three pharmaceutical companies with emphasis in disease pattern recognition and drug safety. His interests and expertise include the application of medical knowledge using intelligent software to achieve efficient and accurate health care decisions, optimized for the individual patient.

Partner & Website Design/Social Media Director

Brian Trost is a BA statistician and specializes in user interfaces and technical customer support.



This site includes IP2Location LITE data available from https://lite.ip2location.com .

Bibliography

Publications

  1. Alexander MR, Ambre JJ, Liskow BI, and Trost DC: Therapeutic use of albumin. Journal of the American Medical Association 1979; 241(23):2527-2529.

  2. Trost DC, Woolson RF, Hayreh SS: Quantification of visual fields for statistical analysis. Archives of Ophthalmology 1979; 97(11):2175-2180.

  3. Beaglehole R, Trost DC, Tamir I, Kwiterovich P, Glueck CJ, Insull W, and Christiansen B: Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol in children and young adults: The Lipid Research Clinics Program prevalence study. Circulation 1980; 62(Suppl. IV):83-92.

  4. Runyan DK, Gould CL, Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of foster care placement for the maltreated child. American Journal of Public Health 1981; 71(7):706-711.

  5. Schwarz W, Trost DC, Reiland SL, Rifkind BM, and Heiss G: Correlates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol: Associations with physical, chemical, dietary, and behavioral characteristics: The Lipid Research Clinics Program prevalence study. Arteriosclerosis 1982; 2:513-522.

  6. Runyan DK, Gould CL,Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of foster care placement for the maltreated child. Child Abuse and Neglect 1982; 6(3):343-350.

  7. Wilkinson EJ, Nyeem R, Massey JK, and Trost DC: Letter to the Editor. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 1983; 2(2):224-225.

  8. Ketchum CH, Robinson CA, Hall LM, Grizzle WE, Maclaren NK, Riley WJ, and Trost C: Clinical significance and partial biochemical characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 6. Clinical Chemistry 1984; 30(1):46-49.

  9. Nikolaidis ET, Trost DC, Buchholz CL, and Wilkinson EJ: The relationship of histologic and clinical factors in laryngeal papillomatosis. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 1985; 109(1):24-29.

  10. Chen JL, Trost DC, and Wilkinson EJ: Endometrial papillary adenocarcinomas: Two clinicopathological types. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 1985; 4(4):279-288.

  11. Pribor HC, Campbell CR, Hebb JH, and Trost DC: Ethanol and vehicular safety: The Nashville experience: Part I. Breath testing. Laboratory Management April, 1985; 15-19.

  12. Pribor HC, Campbell CR, Hebb JH, and Trost DC: Ethanol and vehicular safety: The Nashville experience: Part II. Breath- and blood-alcohol correlation. Laboratory Management June, 1985; 21-27.

  13. Gordon DJ, Trost DC, Hyde J, Whaley FS, Hannan PJ, Jacobs DR, and Ekelund LG: Seasonal cholesterol cycles: The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial placebo group. Circulation 1987; 76(6):1224-1231.

  14. Trost DC: A comparison of the probabilities of misclassification for the estimated linear, the quadratic, and the unbiased-density discriminant functions using asymptotic expansions. Dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1988.

  15. Gordon DJ, Hyde J, Trost DC, Whaley FS, Hannan PJ, Jacobs DR, and Ekelund LG: Cyclic seasonal variation in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels: The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial placebo group. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1988; 41(7):679-689.

  16. Accomando WP,Trost DC, and Finman JS: Moving from multinational clinical trials to supra-trials. Proceedings of the Biopharmaceutical Section of the American Statistical Association 1994; 232-237.

  17. Cherng, NC, Ali MW, Li YM, and Trost DC: A review of methods for the evaluation and display of laboratory safety data. Proceedings of the Biopharmaceutical Section of the American Statistical Association 1996: 14-22.

  18. Meyer RD, Trost DC, and Vukovinsky K: Invited discussion of “Challenges facing industrial statisticians” by Hahn and Hoerl. Technometrics 1998; 40(3):203-205.

  19. Lan KKG and Trost DC: Estimation of parameters and sample size re-estimation. Proceedings of the Biopharmaceutical Section of the American Statistical Association 1998.

  20. Trost DC, Hu M, Brailey AG, Hoffman JM. Probability-based construction of reference ranges for ratios of log-Gaussian analytes: An example from automated leukocyte counts. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 2002; 117(6):851-856.

  21. Altiparmak F, Erdal S, Ferhatosmanoglu H, Trost DC. Information mining over heterogeneous and high dimensional time series data in clinical trials databases. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 2006; 10(2):254-263.

  22. Otey ME, Parthasarathy S, Trost DC. Dissimilarity measures for detecting hepatotoxicity in clinical trial data. Proceedings of the Sixth SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, April, 2006; 507-511.

  23. Trost DC. Multivariate probability-based detection of drug-induced hepatic signals. Toxicological Reviews.2006; 25(1):37-54.

  24. Trost DC. An introduction to pathodynamics from the view of homeostasis and beyond. Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 2007; 7(1):1080303-1080304.

  25. Trost DC, Freston JW. The use of vector analysis to detect a possible signal of hepatotoxicity of a drug in development: Methodology and preliminary results. Drug Information Journal 2008; 42:27-34.

  26. Schildcrout JS, Jenkins CA, Ostroff, JH, Gillen DL, Harrell FE, Trost DC. Analysis of longitudinal laboratory data in the presence of common selection mechanisms: A view toward greater emphasis on pre-marketing pharmaceutical safety. Statistics in Medicine.2008; 27(12):2248-2266.

  27. Trost DC. A method for constructing and estimating the RR-memory of the QT-interval and its inclusion in a multivariate biomarker for torsades de pointes risk. Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics 2008; 18(4):773-796.

  28. Trost DC, Overman EA, Ostroff JH, Xiong W, March, P. A model for liver homeostasis using a modified mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 2010; 11(1):27-47.

Book Chapters

  1. Seillier-Moiseiwitsch F, Trost DC, Seillier-Moiseiwitsch J. Statistical Methods for Proteomics. In Looney SW (ed), Methods in Molecular Biology: Biostatistical Methods, Humana Press, 2001;184:51-80.

  2. Trost DC. Pathodynamics: Improving Biomarker Selection by Getting More Information from Changes over Time. In Bleavins MR, Carini C, Jurima-Romet M, Rahbari R (ed), Biomarkers in Drug Development: A Handbook of Practice, Application, and Strategy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010; 643-691.

  3. Trost DC. Hepatotoxicity. In Gould AL (ed), Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2015; 229-292.

Abstracts

  1. Gould CL, Runyan DK, Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of social intervention for the maltreated child. Clinical Research 1980; 25(5):897A.

  2. Gould CL, Runyan DK, Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of foster care for the maltreated child. Pediatric Research 1981; 15:519.

  3. Nikolaidis ET, Trost DC, Buchholz CL, and Wilkinson EJ: Laryngeal papillomas: Histopathologic and clinical distinctions between adult and juvenile forms. Laboratory Investigation 1983; 48(1):64A.

  4. Benson NA, Benson BA, Nourse VA, Trost DC, and Braylan RC: Dual-angle light scatter in the identification of leukemic cells by flow cytometry. Blood 1983; 62(Supp.):166A.

  5. Chen JL, Wilkinson E.J, and Trost C: Endometrial papillary adenocarcinoma: Two clinicopathologic types. Laboratory Investigation 1984; 50(1):10A.

  6. Gordon DJ, Hyde J, Trost DC, Whaley FS, and Jacobs D: Seasonal variation of plasma lipid levels. Circulation 1985; 74(Supp. II):158.

  7. Sutton SC, Rinaldi MTS, Trost DC: Statistical analysis of the absorption rate constant determination using rat single pass intestinal perfusion and water flux correction. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1996; 4(suppl)

  8. Trost DC, Freston JW: Use of vector analysis of liver function tests to detect an early signal of hepatotoxicity of a drug in early clinical trials. Hepatology 2003; 38(4 Supp 1):698A.

Presentations

  1. Trost DC, Woolson RF, and Hayreh SS: Biometric assessment of visual fields. Poster Session of College of Medicine Research Day, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, May 1976.

  2. Gould CL, Runyan DK, Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of social intervention for the maltreated child. Southern Society for Pediatric Research, New Orleans, January, 1981.

  3. Gould CL, Runyan DK, Trost DC, and Loda FA: Determinants of foster care for the maltreated child. Joint meeting of the American Pediatric Society and the Society for Pediatric Research, San Francisco, April 1981.

  4. Trost DC: Applications of statistics in clinical pathology. Resident Research Seminar, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, April, 1982.

  5. Nikolaidis ET, Trost DC, Buchholz CL, and Wilkinson EJ: Laryngeal papillomas: Histopathologic and clinical distinctions between adult and juvenile forms. Meeting of the International Academy of Pathology, Atlanta, March, 1983.

  6. Trost DC: Statistical analysis of the laryngeal papilloma study. Resident Research Seminar, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, April, 1983.

  7. Grams R, Trost DC, Repp M, Massey JK., and Berkow R: Knowledge based library systems for medical practice. 4th Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology, Jerusalem, Israel, May, 1984.

  8. Trost DC: Multivariate approach to laboratory diagnosis. Symposium on Clinical Laboratory Computers, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, June, 1984. (Invited presentation).

  9. Trost DC: Using stochastic processes to analyze drop-out data. Joint Statistical Meetings, San Francisco, August, 1993 (Invited presentation).

  10. Trost DC: Mathematical careers in the biomedical sciences. Careers in the Mathematical Sciences Student Conference, Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts, October, 1993 (Invited presentation).

  11. Trost DC: Mathematical careers in the biomedical sciences. Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, April, 1994 (Invited presentation).

  12. Accomando WP, Trost DC, and Finman SF: Moving from multinational trials to supra-trials. Joint Statistical Meetings, Toronto, August, 1994 (Invited presentation).

  13. Trost DC: The role of physician effect in global clinical trials. 1994 Joint Statistical Meetings, Toronto, August, 1994 (Invited presentation).

  14. Trost DC: Medical informatics in the pharmaceutical industry. Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, February, 1995 (Invited presentation).

  15. Cherng NC, Ali MW, Li M, Trost, DC: Some approaches to the evaluation and display of laboratory safety data. Joint Statistical Meetings, Chicago, August, 1996.

  16. Sutton SC, Rinaldi MTS, Trost DC: Statistical analysis of the absorption rate constant determination using rat single pass intestinal perfusion and water flux correction. Third European Congress of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edinburgh, Scotland, September, 1996.

  17. Trost DC: The Quantitative Basis of Laboratory Medicine. American Statistical Association Biopharmaceutical Adverse Event Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, October, 1996 (Invited half-day workshop).

  18. Trost DC: An Introduction to the Quantitative Basis of Laboratory Medicine. Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, California, September, 1997 (Invited workshop)

  19. Long WJ, Fraser HSF, Ostroff JH, Trost DC: Automating the coding of medical events in multiple dictionaries. Society for Medical Decision Making Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MA, October, 1998

  20. Trost DC: An overview of pharmacogenomics. 1998 PhRMA Biostatistics Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, November 1998. (Invited presentation)

  21. Lispcomb J, Salsburg DS, Trost DC, Turner R, Lustig S: Using a surrogate sample to derive patient preferences for a cost-utility analysis in a randomized clinical trial. Inaugural European Conference of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics, Cologne, Germany, December, 1998.

  22. Seillier-Moiseiwitsch F, Ramaswami A, and Trost DC: Statistical methods for proteomics. Joint Statistical Meetings, Baltimore, MD, August, 1999.

  23. Trost DC: Premarketing safety analysis is a different paradigm. PhRMA Biostatistics and Clinical Data Management Workshop, Bethesda, MD, November, 1999. (Invited presentation)

  24. Lan KKG, Trost DC: Flexible procedures for interim analysis of long-term clinical trials. International Conference on Statistics in the 21st Century, University of Maine, Orono, ME, June, 2000.

  25. Trost DC: The meaning of “3 x ULN” rule in hepatotoxicity. Midwest Biopharmaceutical Statistics Workshop, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, May, 2001. (Invited presentation)

  26. Wolf S, Nestler A, Trost DC, Reichel MB. Natural history of occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: Conversion from occult to classic lesions. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Fort Lauderdale, FL, May 8, 2002.

  27. Nestler A, Gäbler P, Trost DC, Reichel MB, Wolf S. Two-year follow-up of natural history of occult choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration: Changes in visual acuity. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Fort Lauderdale, FL, May 5, 2003.

  28. Wolf S, Nestler A, Pickering EH, Trost DC, Mössner A, Schnurrbusch UEK, Verdugo ME. Natural history of occult CNV secondary to AMD. American Academy of Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, November 17, 2003.

  29. Trost DC, Freston JW. Use of vector analysis of liver function tests to detect an early signal of hepatotoxicity of a drug in early clinical trials. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Annual Meeting, Boston, October 28, 2003.

  30. Trost DC. Signal detection of hepatotoxicity using vector analysis. PEA 2nd Annual Symposium on Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity. Bethesda, MD, February 24, 2004. (Invited presentation)

  31. Trost DC. Signal detection of hepatotoxicity using vector analysis. PEA 3rd Annual Symposium on Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity. Philadelphia, PA, September 20, 2004. (Invited presentation)

  32. Trost DC. Signal detection of hepatotoxicity using vector analysis. Department of Biostatistics Seminar, Vanderbilt University, June 22, 2005. (Invited presentation)

  33. Ostroff JH, Trost DC. MDV: A multivariate data visualization tool for clinical laboratory data and other time-varying continuous measurements. American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium. Washington, DC, October 25, 2005.

  34. Schildcrout JS, Jenkins C, Ostroff J, Gillen D, Harrell F, Trost DC. Flexible longitudinal regression modeling of clinical lab data for early detection of drug toxicity. The 29th Annual Midwest Biopharmaceutical Statistics Workshop, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, May 23, 2006

  35. Altiparmak F, Ozturk O, Erdal S, Ferhatosmanoglu H, Trost DC. Information mining over heterogeneous microarray and clinical data. Ohio Collaborative Conference on Bioinformatics, Ohio University, Athens, OH, June 29, 2006.

  36. Trost DC. Pathodynamics: An application of Brownian motion to characterize homeostasis in clinical medicine. IBM Watson Institute Workshop on Personalized Medicine, Hawthorne, NY, December 12, 2006. (Invited presentation)

  37. Trost DC. An introduction to pathodynamics from the view of homeostasis and beyond. Sixth International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Zürich, Switzerland, July 16-20, 2007.

  38. Trost, DC. Dynamic analysis of drug-induced ventricular repolarization effects in ambulatory patients. SIAM Conference on Mathematics for Industry: Challenges and Frontiers. Philadelphia, PA, October 9-11, 2007.

  39. Trost DC. An introduction to pathodynamics from the view of liver homeostasis using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Fourteenth Annual Biopharmaceutical Applied Statistics Symposium. Savannah, GA, November 5-9, 2007 (Invited presentation).

  40. Trost DC. Statistical issues with current liver enzyme testing and the potential impact of multidimensional analysis. American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences (ACDRS), May 12-14, 2008 (Invited presentation).