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Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form in the urinary tract. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball and can cause severe pain when they pass through the urinary tract. The most common type of urinary calculi is composed of calcium oxalate, but other types of stones can be composed of struvite, uric acid, or cystine. Treatment for urinary calculi typically involves medications to help break down the stones, or surgery to remove them.
All of the following must be considered when interpreting clinical findings and are too extensive to be covered on this site: